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Oamastanráhkadusat davvisámi girjjálašvuođas

Letne analyseren 3812 davvisámegiela oamastanráhkadusa: substantiivvaid maidda lea lasihuvvon oamastangeažus (SOG) ja gihpuid main lea refleksiivapronomen mas lea oamastangeažus, ja substantiiva (ieža-gihppu). Cealkagiid letne viežžan vuosttažettiin čáppagirjjálašvuođa teavsttain, muhto maiddái moatti teavsttas mat eai gula nu čielgasit čáppagirjjálašvuhtii. Materiála čájeha giellanuppástusa mas ieža-gihppu boahtá eanet ja eanet SOG sadjái anaforalaš oktavuođain. Dutkamuša materiála boarráseamos čálliide lea syntáksa dehálaš fáktor oamastanráhkadusa válljemis, muhto gaskabuolvvas ja nuoramus buolvvas lea semantihkka dehálaččat. Ođđa testameanta sulastahttá boarráseamos čálliid teavsttaid, ja Johan Turi giella állana muhtun muddui gaskabuolvva gillii. Orru ahte giela siskkáldas fáktorat leat mielde lasiheamen leavttu giela nuppástussii, ja dutkanmateriálas dát dáhpáhuvvá sullii seamma ládje Suoma beale Deatnogáttis ja Guovdageainnu guovllus.

Artihkal lea almmuhuvvvon: Dieđut 2/2015: 9–43, ja dutkanmateriála almmuhuvvo dás.

Lene Antonsen ja Laura Janda

Possessive constructions in North Saami prose

We present an analysis of nearly 4K examples of possessive constructions extracted from nearly 0.7M words of North Saami prose representing works of authors born in three time periods (1870-1927, 1947-1957, 1972-1983), plus a recent (1998) translation of the New Testament. The examples document an ongoing language change in which the possessive suffix attached to a noun (“SOG”) is being replaced by the genitive reflexive pronoun preceding the noun (“ieža-”). All examples are hand tagged for the two constructions, SOG vs. ieža-, plus a host of variables including the case and semantic class of the possessum and possessor, the person and number of the possessor, the source of the example, and the generation and geographical location of the author. In addition to anaphoric, endophoric, and exophoric reference previously described, we discover a generic type of reference.

We track the progress of the language change across generations and find Johan Turi exceptional because he used ieža- more than his contemporaries. We focus particularly on examples of double marking of possession, and on examples where the number of the possessive construction does not match the possessor, and on the case and semantic class of possessor and possessum. It appears that semantics play a greater role in the choice of possessive constructions for the middle and younger generations than for the older generation. We hypothesize that the greater morphological complexity of the SOG construction is a language-internal factor that has contributed to its decline.

Lene Antonsen and Laura Janda

Dukanmateriála – Research materials

  • Anders Larsen 2013 (1912): Beaiveálgu. Kárášjohka: Čálliid Lágadus.
  • Anders O. Eira 1991: Duottarráfis soahtešilljui. Kárášjohka: Davvi Girji.
  • Elle Márjá Vars 1986: Kátjá. Kárášjohka: Davvi Media.
  • Elle Márjá Vars 2002: Čábbámus iđitguovssu. [Billávuotna]: Iđut.
  • Hans Á. Guttorm 2007 (1940): Gohccán spálli. Divttat ja máidnasat. Kárášjohka: Davvi Girji. (divttat eai leat mielde dutkanmateriálas)
  • Hans Á. Guttorm 1986: Iešnjárgga šiljut. Deatnu: Jår'galæd'dji.
  • Johan Turi 1987 (1910): Muitalus sámiid birra. Jokkmokk: Sámi Girjjit.
  • Jovnna-Ánde Vest 1988: Čáhcegáddái nohká boazobálggis. Kárášjohka: Davvi Media.
  • Jovnna-Ánde Vest 2002: Árbbolaččat 2. Kárášjohka: Davvi Girji. (SIKOR. Digitálalaš veršuvdna ii leat ideanttalaš prentejuvvon veršuvnnain.)
  • Jovnna-Ánde Vest 2005: Árbbolaččat 3. Kárášjohka: Davvi Girji. (SIKOR)
  • Jens Martin Mienna 2010: Eallima čoavdda. Kárášjohka: Davvi Girji.
  • Klemet Nilsen Turi 1982: Áiggit rivdet. [Deatnu]: Jår'galæd'dji.
  • Kirsti Paltto 2001: Suoláduvvan. Noveallat. Kárášjohka: Davvi Girji.
  • Kirsti Paltto 2007: Ája. Kárášjohka: Davvi Girji.
  • Máret Ánne Sárá 2013 : Ilmmiid gaskkas. Guovdageaidnu: Dat.
  • Mikkel P.A. Bongo 1985: Mus ledje bálgát. [Deatnu]: Jår'galæd'dji. (divttat eai leat mielde dutkanmateriálas)
  • Ođđa testamenta. Oslo: Norgga Biibbalsearvi 1998. (SIKOR)

SIKOR lea UiT Norgga árktalaš universitehta ja Norgga Sámedikki sámi teakstačoakkáldat. Čoakkáldat lea olámuttus dás.

Gilkorastojuvvon cealkagat – Annotated sentences

Gilkoriid čilgehusat:

  • NPx = SOG (substantiiva (ja guokte adjektiivva) oamastangehčosiin)
  • Refl = ieža-gihppu (ieža+Gen + substantiiva)
  • Anaf = anaforalaš refererenvuohki
  • Endo = endoforalaš refererenvuohki
  • Ekso = eksoforalaš refererenvuohki
  • EksoVoc = eksoforalaš vokatiiva
  • OLD = boarráseamos čállit, riegádan 1854–1927
  • MID = gaskabuolvva čállit, riegádan 1947–1957
  • YOUNG = nuorra čállit, riegádan 1972 ja 1983
  • EAST = Suoma beale Deatnogáttis
  • WEST = Norgga bealde Guovdageainnu guovllus, ja Návuonas
  • NT = Ođđa testameanta