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Verbal Inflection

This document sketches the system of the Inari Saami verb. For each stem type, it gives root vowels, stem vowels and alternations.

Two-syllabic verbs

We have -âđ, -iđ, -eđ, -uđ, -ođ, as well as -eeđ, -oođ, -uuđ.

âđ stems

Root vowels may be short vowels, long vowels or diphthongs.

âđ stems with short vowels

  57 2SYLL_KAVNAD
  55 2SYLL_KULGAD
  20 2SYLL_SPELLAD
  19 2SYLL_ETTAD
  18 2SYLL_KOLGAD
  12 2SYLL_OPPAD
   6 2SYLL_SODDAD
   1 2SYLL_KALGAD
inf Sg1 Prs Sg1 triggers Sg3 Prs Sg3 trig Pl3 Pl3 trig Prt Sg1 Prt Sg1 trig stem yaml¶ contlex
tabžâđ taabžâm â%^WG%^VBACK%^RLEN tábžá á%^VHIGH      täbžeh e%>h tabžim i%^VBACK ta%^RVbž % 2SYLL_KAVNAD
keččâđ keejâm â%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN kiäččá á%^VHIGH keččih i%>h keččim i%>m ke%^RVčč % | 2SYLL_SPELLAD
lekkâđ leehâm â%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN liäkká á%^VHIGH lekkih i%>h lekkim i%>m le%^RVk4k4 % | 2SYLL_SPELLAD
viggâđ viigâm â%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN viggá á viggeh e%>h viggim i%^VHIGH%>m vi%^RVgg + 2SYLL_SODDAD
kalgâđ kaalgâm â%^WG%^VBACK%^RLEN á-á á%^WG%^VHIGH kälgih i%^CSH%>h kalgim i%^VBACK ka%^RVlg + 2SYLL_KALGAD
šoddâđ šoodâm â%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN a-a á šaddeh e%>h šoddim i%^VHIGH%>m ša%^RVdd + 2SYLL_SODDAD
ettâđ eeđâm â%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN iä- á á%^CSH%^VHIGH eteh e%^CSH%>h ettim i%>m e%^RVtt4 + 2SYLL_ETTAD
kulgâđ kuulgâm â%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN o-á á kolgeh e%>h kulgim i%^VHIGH%>m ko%^RVlg + 2SYLL_KULGAD
toppâđ toopâm â%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN tappa á tappeh e%>h toppim i%^VHIGH%>m topp (?) % 2SYLL_KULGAD
kolgâđ koolgâm â%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN a-a a kalgeh e%>h kolgim i%^VHIGH ka%^RVlg + 2SYLL_KOLGAD
oppâđ oopâm â%^WG%^VBACK%^RLEN uqppá á uáppih i%>h oppim i%^VBACK%^RVSH uápp + 2SYLL_OPPAD

¶) yaml: + = own yaml paradigm, - = no paradigm, % = form in the list yaml file

Errors:

  • prt sg1 taabžâim, kaalgâim, šoodâim, eeđâim, kuulgâim

âđ stems with long vowels

  48 2SYLL_AASSAD
  36 2SYLL_TOOHAD
  26 2SYLL_VIISSAD
  23 2SYLL_MOONNAD
  11 2SYLL_TOOLLAD
   
inf Sg1 Prs Sg1 trig Sg3 Prs Sg3 trg Pl3 Pl3 trig Prt Sg1 Prt Sg1 trig stem yaml contlex
njaahâđ njaaṿâm â%^WG njááhá á%^EA%^CSH njäähih i%^CSH%>h njaahim i%^VBACK njääh%^RC + 2SYLL_AASSAD
keerrâđ keerâm â%^WG kiärá á%^EA%^CSH keerih i%^CSH%>h keerrim i%^VBACK keerr % 2SYLL_AASSAD
viiššâđ viišâm â%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN viṣ̌á á%^CSH višeh e%^CSH%>h viššii i%^RLEN vi%^RVš%^RC + 2SYLL_VIISSAD
moonnâđ moonâm â%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN maṇâ á%^CSH maneh e%^CSH%>h moonnim i%^VHIGH%^RLEN ma%^RVn%^RC + 2SYLL_MOONNAD
luuhâđ luuvâm â%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN lohá %^CSH loheh e%^CSH%>h luuhim i%^VHIGH%^RLEN lo%^RVh%^RC + 2SYLL_TOOHAD
toollâđ toolâm â%^WG%^VBACK tuálá á%^CSH tuálih %^CSH%>h toollim i%^VBACK%^RLEN tuáll + 2SYLL_TOOLLAD
  65 2SYLL_VUOLLAD
  34 2SYLL_KIESSAD
   7 2SYLL_VIEZZAD
   6 2SYLL_RUOTTAD
   4 2SYLL_CIEPPAD
inf Sg1 Prs Sg1 trig Sg3 Prs Sg3 trg Pl3 Pl3 trig Prt Sg1 Prt Sg1 trig stem yaml contlex
vuollâđ vuolâm â%^WG%^VBACK%^RLEN vuálâ á%^CSH%^VHIGH vyelih i%^CSH%>h vuollim i%^VBACK%^RLEN vyel%^RC + 2SYLL_VUOLLAD
kiessâđ kiesâm â%^WG% kiäsá á%^EA%^CSH kiesih i%^CSH%>h kiessim i kies%^RC + 2SYLL_KIESSAD
viežžâđ viežâm â%^WG% viäžžá á%^EA viežžih i%>h viežžim i viežž + 2SYLL_VIEZZAD
ruottâđ ruotâm â%^WG%^VBACK%^RLEN ruáttá á%^VHIGH ryettih i%>h ruottim i%^VBACK%^RLEN ryett + 2SYLL_RUOTTAD
smiettâđ smietâm â%^WG smiättá á%^EA - i%>h - i smiett % 2SYLL_CIEPPAD
  • Note: cieppâđ is KIESSAD and čieppâđ is VIEZZAD

Diphthongs are uo and ie, they change to uá and iá, i.e. the second vowel changes.

inf Sg1 Sg3
uo - â uo - â uá - á
ie - â ie - â iä - á

iđ stems

Verbs in -iđ with two syllables are either bisyllabic or contract. They are contract, if 1. syll contains a, i, o, u, o. Verbs with syllable e, ie may be either bisyllabic or contract.

 109 2SYLL_ID
   8 2SYLL_KASTID

Short root vowel:

inf Sg1 Prs Sg1 trig Sg3 Prs Sg3 trg Pl3 Pl3 trig Prt Sg1 Prt Sg1 trig stem yaml contlex
kästiđ káástám á%^VHIGH%^RLEN kástá á%^VHIGH kästih i%>h kastim i%^VBACK kä%^RVst + 2SYLL_KASTID
sävviđ sávám á%^VHIGH%^RLEN sávvá á%^VHIGH - i%>h - i%^VBACK sä%^RVvv % 2SYLL_KASTID
rähtiđ rááhtám á%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN ráhtá á%^VHIGH rähtih i%>h rahtim i%^VBACK rä%^RVht4 + 2SYLL_ID
celkkiđ ciälhám á%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN ciälkká á%^VHIGH celkkih i%>h celkkim i%^VBACK ce%^RVlkk4 + 2SYLL_ID

Table

inf Sg1 Sg3 PrtSg3
ä - i áá - á á - á aa - i
e - i iä - á iá - á ee - i

Long root vowel:

   7 2SYLL_CAALLID
   6 2SYLL_VYELGID
   5 2SYLL_VYEIJID
   5 2SYLL_UAINID
   5 2SYLL_PAACCID
   4 2SYLL_KEESSID
   4 2SYLL_EELLID
   3 2SYLL_UADDID
   1 JUAVVID
   1 2SYLL_TIETTID
inf Sg1 Prs Sg1 trig Sg3 Prs Sg3 trg Pl3 Pl3 trig Prt Sg1 Prt Sg1 trg stem yaml contlex
čäälliđ čálám á%^EA%^WG%^RVSH čáálá á%^EA%^CSH čäälih i%^CSH%>h čaallim i%^VBACK čääll + 2SYLL_CAALLID
peehiđ piävám á%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN piävá á%^CSH%^VHIGH peehih i%^CSH%>h peehim i eeh%^RC + 2SYLL_KEESSID
vyeijiđ vuájám á%^WG%^VHIGH vuájá á%^CSH%^VHIGH vyejih i%^CSH%>h vuoijim i%^VBACK%^RLEN vyei4j + 2SYLL_VYEIJID
uáđđiđ uáđám á%^EA%^WG%^RLEN uáđá á%^EA%^CSH uáđih i%^CSH%>h oođđim i%^VBACK uáđđ + 2SYLL_UADDID
uáiniđ uáinám á%^EA%^WG%^RLEN uáiná á%^EA uáinih i%>h oinim i%^VBACK%^RVSH uái4n + 2SYLL_UAINID
vyelgiđ vuálgám á%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN vuálgá á%^VHIGH vyelgih i%>h vuolgim i%^VBACK%^RLEN vyelg + 2SYLL_VYELGID
pääcciđ páásám á%^EA%^WG páácá á%^EA%^CSH pääcih i%^CSH%>h paaccim i%^VBACK pääcc4 + 2SYLL_PAACCID
eelliđ iälám á%^WG%^VHIGH%^RLEN iälá á%^CSH%^VHIGH eelih i%^CSH%>h eellim i eell + 2SYLL_EELLID
tiettiđ tiäđám á%^WG%^VHIGH tiätá á%^EA%^CSH tietih i%^CSH%>h tiettim i tiett4 + 2SYLL_TIETTID
juávviđ - - - á%^EA%^CSH - - - - juávv - JUAVVID

Table

inf Sg1 Sg3 Prt Sg3 Prt Du2
ää - i á - á áá - á aa - i aa - i
ee - i iä - á iä - á ee - i e - i
ye - i uá - á yá - á - i - i
uá - i uá - á uá - á - i - i

uđ stems

Stems in -uđ are contract, if 1. syll is a, i, o, u, uo or ie. Otherwise they are bisyllabic.

 243 2SYLL_UD
  41 2SYLL_KUARRUD
   5 2SYLL_OAZZUD
inf Sg1 Prs Sg1 trig Sg3 Prs Sg3 trg Pl3 Pl3 trig Prt Sg1 Prt Sg1 trg stem yaml contlex
čuárvuđ čuárvum u%^WG%^RLEN čuárvu u čuárvuh u%>h5 čuorvum u%^VBACK ču5árv + 2SYLL_UD
pákkuđ pááhum u%^WG%^RLEN pákku u pákkuh u%>h5 pakkum u%^VBACK ču5árv + 2SYLL_UD
kuárruđ kuárum u%^WG%^RLEN kuáru u%^CSH kuáruh u%^CSH%>h5 koorrum u2%^RLEN kuárr + 2SYLL_KUARRUD
uážžuđ uážum u%^WG uážžu u%^CLEN uážžuh u%>h5 ožžum u2 uážž + 2SYLL_OAZZUD

ođ stems

 135 2SYLL_OD
   1 C_HOLHOD
inf Sg1 Prs Sg1 trig Sg3 Prs Sg3 trg Pl3 Pl3 trg Prt Sg1 Prt Sg1 trg stem yaml contlex
koččođ kočom o%^WG%^RLEN koččo o koččoh o%>h kuččum u%^VHIGH kočč + 2SYLL_OD

Stem vowels

Inf Example
a - o paččođ
i - o rimččođ
u - o čurttođ
o - o koččođ
ai - o laigođ
ui - o puiccođ

ood stems

  31 2SYLL_OOD
  24 2SYLL_ORROOD
inf Sg1 Prs Sg1 trig Sg3 Prs Sg3 trg Pl3 Pl3 trg Prt Sg1 Prt Sg1 trg stem yaml contlex
orroođ orom o%^WG%^RLEN oro o oroh o%>h uurrum u%^VHIGH o%^RVrr + 2SYLL_ORROOD
Inf Ex
a - oo sattoođ
i - oo njihhoođ
o - oo orroođ
oi - oo loijoođ
u - oo luččoođ

eđ stems

  83 2SYLL_PIHTED
  31 2SYLL_POHTED
   8 2SYLL_KALVED

pihteđ: pi%^RVht 2SYLL_PIHTED ; !!YAML

inf Sg1 Prs Sg1 trg Sg3 Prs Sg3 trg Pl3 Pl3 trg Prt Sg1 Prt Sg1 trg stem yaml contlex
pihteđ pivtám á%^WG pihtá á pihteh e%>h pihtim i%^VHIGH pi%^RVht + 2SYLL_PIHTED
pohteđ povtám, poovtám á%^WG pohtá á pohteh e%>h puhtim i po%^RVht + 2SYLL_POHTED
Inf PrsSg1 PrsSg3 PrsDu1 PrsDu2 PrtSg1 PrtSg3 PrtPl3
a - e a - a a - a a - ee a - e o - i oo - ij o - ii
i - e i - á i - á i - ee i - e ii - i ii - ij i - ii
o - e o - á o - á o - ee o - e u - i uu - ij u - ii
u - e u - á u - á u - ee u - e u - i uu - ij u - ii

Comments:

  • Stem vowel a -> á when i root vowel.
  • Stem vowel lengthening

eeđ stems

  27 2SYLL_EED
   2 2SYLL_PAHHEED
inf Sg1 Prs Sg1 trg Sg3 Prs Sg3 trg Pl3 Pl3 trg Prt Sg1 Prt Sg1 trg stem yaml contlex
jotteeđ jođám á%^WG jotá á joteh e%>h juuttim i%^VHIGH jo%^RVt%^RC + 2SYLL_EED
anneeđ anam á%^WG ana á aneh e%>h oonnim i%^VHIGH a%^RVnn + 2SYLL_EED
pahheeđ pavam á%^WG paha á%^CSH paheh e%^CSH%>h poohim i%^CSH%^VHIGH%^RLEN pa%^RVhh + 2SYLL_PAHHEED
Inf Ex
a - ee anneeđ
i - ee itteeđ
o - ee jotteeđ
u - ee suđđeeđ

short root vowel

Inf PrsSg1 PrsDu1 PrsDu2 Prt Sg1 PrtPl2
a - ee a - a a - ee a - e oo - i o - i
i - ee i - á i - ee i - e oo - i o - i
o - ee o - a o - ee o - e oo - i o - i
u - ee u - a u - ee u - e oo - i o - i

Notes

Long ee vs long oo

It seems we have long -oo when the stem vowel is -o or -u, and long -ee elsewhere.

Three-syllabic verbs

 554 3_CIELATTID
 488 3_LEKKASID
 425 3_KUIKETTID
 195 3_PUTESTID
 150 3_VYEJETTID
 124 3_COKKIITTID
  93 3_MERIDID
  54 3_ADELID

Quoting the documentation:

  • 3_LEKKASID (no stem change)
  • 3_CIELATTID (stem-final tt shortening) cielâttiđ: cielât Length change in stem: Consonant change only
  • 3_VYEJETTID (2syll vow short in Inf, long in Sg3, 1st syll V lengthening) vyejettiđ vyejeet
  • 3_PUTESTID (cns and vow lengthening) putestiđ: putteest Length change in stem: Short V in Inf (before V)
  • 3_COKKIITTID (stem-final tt shortening + 2syll vow shortening cokkiittiđ cokkit.
    • difference in negation + Action Ess, Loc.. compared to 3_COKKIITTID)
    • Length change in stem: Long V in Inf (before C#).
  • 3_KUIKETTID
  • 3_MERIDID
  • 3_ADELID
  • 3_UTTID

Contracted verbs

 369 C_TUHHID
 353 C_TABAHTUD
 197 C_COKKAD
 147 C_RAMMUD
  35 C_PALLAD
   8 C_MERIDUD
   5 C_MERIDUDX
   1 C_HOLHOD
   1 C_CAALLUD

ád contracted verbs (C_COKKAD)

inf Sg1 Sg3
čokkáđ čokkáám čokkáá
sáhháđ áhháám sáhháá

ađ contracted verbs (C_PALLAD)

Passes

iđ contracted verbs (C_TUHHID)

The -iđ verb is contract if 1.syll has a, i, o, u, or uo. When the 1.syll is e or ie the verb may be either contract or bisyllabic.

inf Sg1 Sg3
salkkiđ salkkiim sälkkee
stelliđ stelliim stellee
toppiđ toppiim tuáppee
monniđ monniim mannee
tuhhiđ tuhhiim tohhee
staaviđ staaviim stäävee
rievviđ rievviim rievvee
luoddiđ luoddiim lyeddee
inf Sg1 Sg3
e - i e - ii e - ee
i - i i - ii i - ee
ie - i ie - ii ie - ee
u - i u - ii o - ee
inf Sg1 Sg3
a - i a - ii ä - ee
aa - i aa - ii ää - ee
o - i o - ii a - ee
o - i o - ii uá - ee
uo - i uo - ii ye - ee
  1. salkkiđ: stem ä, change to a if 2nd syll vowel is i
  2. tuhhiđ: stem o, change to u if 2nd syll vowel is i
  3. toppiđ: stem uá, change to o if 2nd syll vowel is i
  4. monniđ: stem a, change to o if 2nd syll vowel is i
  5. staaviđ: stem ää, change to aa if 2nd syll vowel is i
  6. luoddiđ: stem ye, change to uo if 2nd syll vowel is i

uđ contracted verbs (C_RAMMUD)

Stems in -uđ are contract, if 1. syll is a, i, o, u, uo or ie. Otherwise they are bisyllabic.

inf Sg1 Sg3 stem Inf Sg3
rammuđ rammuum rámmoo - - -
semmuđ semmuum siämmoo - - -
possuđ possuum passoo - - -
purruđ purruum porroo - - -
tiettuđ tiettuum tiättoo - - -
oinuđ oinuum uáinoo RVSH -
puohtuđ puohtuum puáhtoo - ok uo
ruáttuđ ruáttuum ruáttoo u5á - does not work
  • subst
    • uá + EWG = ye
    • u5á + EWG = uá
    • uá = uá
  • verb
    • uá ... > uđ = o
    • u5á ... > uđ = uo
    • u5á5 ... > uđ = uá
inf Sg1 Sg3
a - u a - uu á - oo
e - u e - uu iä - oo
o - u o - uu a - oo
u - u u - uu o - oo
ie - u ie - uu iä - oo
uo - u uo - uu uá - oo
uá - u uá - uu uá - oo
  1. rammuđ: stem á, change to a if 2nd syll vowel is u
  2. semmuđ: stem iä, change to e if 2nd syll vowel is u
  3. possuđ: stem a, change to o if 2nd syll vowel is u
  4. purruđ: stem o, change to u if 2nd syll vowel is u
  5. tiettuđ: stem iä, change to ie if 2nd syll vowel is u
  6. puohtuđ: stem uá, change to uo if 2nd syll vowel is u
  7. muássuđ: muássud is invariant

Four-syllabic verbs

 533 4_KAVNATTATTAD
  17 4_UHCAD
   8 4_ITTED

Auxiliaries

These ones we just list.