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The syntactic tags

On the bottom of this page is a list with all tags in alphabetical order.

Grammatical function tags

Our syntactic tags (grammatical function tags like @SUBJ>, @OBJ>, etc.) are based upon a compromise between the Saami grammatical tradition and the conventions used within constraint grammar (CG), e.g. as found in the visl project for interactive syntax learning. The main difference between the two is that CG is a linear system, where tags are given to wordforms, and not to phrases. Thus, in a sentence like the Saami equivalent of Peter's dog barks only the word dog will get the tag @SUBJ>. The word Peter's gets the tag @>N, or "modifying a noun to its right". It is then up to the reader (or to further computer processing) to interpret the combination of @>N and @SUBJ> as a phrase.

The arrow in a syntactic tag points at the "parent", which means that the tag tells which kind of part of speech (N, A, P, Pron or Num) or syntactic constituent (like ADVL) the wordform modifies or is a complement to, and whether the "parent" is to the left of to the right.

Some tags do not have arrows. These are of two types. One type is the central verb tags @+FAUXV etc. They do not need direction indication, either it is obvious, or the node points to zero. The other type is the set tag type. For each tag pair @SUBJ>, @<SUBJ, etc, there is a metatag @SUBJ, etc., so that @ means "either @SUBJ> or @<SUBJ".

Note that all syntactic tags are identified by an initial @ symbol, to distinguish them from morphological tags, which do not have such a prefix. In the analysis, the syntactic tags are printed at the end of the tag string.

The syntactic tags for Sámi

The Saami disambiguation file sme-dis.rle adds syntactic tags to each cohort.

The verb tags

  • @+FAUXV @+FMAINV @-FAUXV @-FMAINV

These tags are self-explanatory: there are finite and infinite main and auxiliary verbs.

The major function tags

  • @<SUBJ (@<SUBJ @<ext>) @SUBJ> @SUBJ @<SPRED @SPRED> @SPRED @<OBJ @OBJ> @OBJ @<OPRED @OPRED> @OPRED

The four main functions for subject, object and their predicatives are obvious.

  • @-FSUBJ> @-FOBJ> @-F<OBJ

These are tags for the same functions of infinite verbs outside the verbal: mu gets @-FSUBJ> in Diet dáhpáhuvai mu dieđikeahttá (the infinite verb gets @<ADVL) and girjji gets @-F<OBJ in Munnje lei lossat lohkat girjji. (the infinite verb gets @<SPRED).

The adverbial tags

  • @ADVL> @<ADVL @ADVL
  • @-FADVL
  • @PCLE @COMP-CS<
  • @P< @>P
  • @ADVL< @>ADVL

The @ADVL> @<ADVL @ADVL tags mark adverbials (many, but not all of the adverbials are adverbs). The two first ones indicate the direction to the mother node, the third is used to refer to both the former.

The adverbial of an infinite verb outside the verbal gets @-FADVL. The <hab> tag marks the habitive construction.

The @PCLE tag marks particles, and the @COMP-CS< tag is for the complement of a @CS.

The two tags @>P and @P< are for complements of post- and prepositions, respectively.

The two tags @>ADVL and @ADVL< modify the adverbial to the right, or is a complement of the adverbial to the left, respectively. Note that these tags mark modifyers of adverbials rather than adverbials themselves.

The NP-internal modifiers

The other syntactic tags for modifiers tell which word they modify, and whether they modify to the left or to the right.

  • @>N @>A @>Num @>Pron
  • @Pron< @N< @Num<

The morphological tag will tell what kind of part of speech the constituent itself is.

The @Pron< tag is for eg. numerals modifying pronouns to their left, like in Mii golmmas finaimet máná geahčen.

The @Num< tag is for complements of numerals, like máná in Sudnos leat golbma máná.

Appositions

  • @APP-N< @APP-Pron< @APP-Num< @APP-ADVL<
  • @APP>Pron

The apposition tag marks whether it is an apposition of a noun, a pronoun, a numeral or an adverbial.

The function words

  • @CNP @CVP

Conjunction connecting NPs and VPs.

Sentence-external tags

  • @HNOUN @INTERJ @VOC

Stray noun in sentence fragment, interjection and vocative.

The @X tag

  • @X

An @X tag is assigned to mark that no tag has been assigned (because of omissions in our rule component)

The tags, listed alphabetically

Here is a list of the tags, with a definition or description, and one or more examples following each of them

@+FAUXV
Finite auxiliary verb.
ferte (V)
Sámi geavaheddjiid bálvalusaid vuođđun ferte leat sámegielmáhttu ja sámi kulturmáhttu. - 'Saami user services need to be based on Saami language competence and Saami cultural competence.'
@+FMAINV
Finite main verb.
Boađe (V)
Boađe boahtte vahku. - 'Come next week.'
@-F<ADVL
árbbolaččain (N)
Danne dárbbašit mii oažžut lobi Nils Aslak Valkeapää árbbolaččain almmuhit dán guokte lávlaga min sálbma-CD:s. - 'Therefore we need to get permission from Nils Aslak Valkeapää's heirs to release these two songs on our psalm-CD.'
@-F<OBJ
Object of infinite verb outside the verbal.
govaid (N)
Boađe mu lusa geahččat govaid! - 'Come to me and look at the pictures!'
@-F<OPRED
Object predicative of infinite verb outside the verbal.
xxx
xxx
@-F<SPRED
Subject predicativeof infinite verb outside the verbal.
xxx
xxx
@>A
Modifier of an adjective to the left.
nu (Adv)
Gulahallan Sámedikkiin dán gažaldagas šaddá nu konkrehtalažžan go vejolaš. - 'The discussion in the Saami Parliament about this issue gets as concrete as possible.'
@A<
Modifier of an adjective to the right.
básárdoaluin (N)
IL Nordlysa beaivválaš jođiheaddji, Nils Peder Eriksen, lohká iežaset leat oalle duhtavaččat dán jagáš básárdoaluin. - 'The business manager of IL Nordlys, Nils Peder Eriksen, says he is really satisfied with this year's bazar arrangment.'
@ADVL
Sentence adverbial, @ADVL> or @<ADVL.
@>ADVL
Modifier of an adverbial.
Man (Adv)
Man dávjá don lávet fitnat doppe? - 'How often do you usually go there?'
@<ADVL
adverbial to the right of the finite verb
beaivvážis (N)
Gávpot ii dárbbaš čuovgga beaivvážis ii ge mánus. - 'The city does not need light from the sun and not the from the moon either.
@ADVL>
Adverbial to the left of the finite verb.
lasttain (N)
Ja muora lasttain ožžot álbmogat dearvvašvuođa. - 'And from the tree's leaves, the people get health.'
@ADVL<
Complement of an adverbial to the right of its head.
vahkus (N)
Mun málestan guktii vahkus. - 'I make food twice a week.'
@ADVL>CS
adverbial modifying a conjunction
dallah (Adv)
Dallah goh Jeesuse tjaetseste tjuedtjele, dellie vuajna Elmie rihpesåvva jih Voejkene altasasse goh ledtie suaja. - 'Right after Jesus stood up from the water, he sees that heaven opens and the holy spirit flies to him like a bird.'
(sma)
@APP-ADVL<
Apposition to an adverbial to the left. If the apposition consists of more than one word, the head will get this tag.
ovdal (Pr)
Dolin, ovdal soađi, olbmot lávejedje vuovdit joŋaid. - 'In old times, before the war, people used to sell cowberries.'
@APP-N<
Apposition to a noun to the left of it. If the apposition is more than one word, the head will get this tag.
eatnigiela (N)
Viimmat mun ohppen čállit sámegiela, mu eatnigiela. - 'Finally, I learned to write in Sámi, my mother tongue.'
@APP-Num<
Apposition to a numeral to the left.
suinniid (N)
Juohke heasta borrá sullii 6 kilu suinniid beaivái. - 'Every horse eats approximately 6 kilograms of grass a day.'
@APP>Pron
Apposition to a pronoun to the right. If the apposition is more than one constituent, the head will get this tag.
Turner (N Prop)
Muhto diet Will Turner, son nai lea fiinna olmmái. - 'But this Will Turner, he is also a nice guy.'
@APP-Pron<
Apposition to a pronoun to the left. If the apposition is more than one constituent, the head will get this tag.
olbmái (N)
Dan mun muitalan dušše dutnje, mu buoremus olbmái. - 'This I tell only you, my best friend.'
@CMPND
First part of a compound followed by a hyphen
skaehtie-
Reerenasse galka båetije stoerredigkieboelhkesne jåerhkedh dam skaehtie- jïh åasadaltesem mij lea daelie, jïh daennie daltesisnie hov lea nuepie buerebe joekedimmiem darjodh.
@CNP
Local conjunction or subjunction.
ja (CC)
Sihke Mázes ja Guovdageainnus leat boarrásat viššalit finadan doaibmaguovddážiin. - 'Both in Máze and Guovdageaidnu, the oldest people frequently got to the activitycentre.'
go (CS)
Sámi geavaheaddjit hállet dávjá metaforaiguin ja sis leat ollu eará gulahallanvuogit go giella. - 'Saami users speak often in metaphores and the have many other ways of comunicating than by means of language.'
@COMP-CS<
Complement of subjunction.
vejolaš (A)
Gulahallan Sámedikkiin dán gažaldagas šaddá nu konkrehtalažžan go vejolaš. - 'The contact with the Saami Parliament about this issue gets as concrete as possible.'
@CVP
Conjunction or subjunction that conjoins finite verb phrases.
ja (CC)
Bealatjogas leat dološ rájes leamaš bálvvossajit ja dát golbma sieiddi ledje dovddus gitta olgoriikii. - 'Long since, there have been sacrificial sites at Bealatjohka and the three 'sieidi' (cult images) were known even abroad.
go (CS)
Leago guhkes áigi dassá go Máreha oidnet? - 'Has it been a long time since you have seen Máret?'
@-FADVL>
Complement of infinite verb outside the verbal.
várrogasat (Adv)
Dihkkadeaddji rávve skohtervuddjiid várrogasat mátkkoštit. 'The roadman warns snowscooter drivers to drive carefully.'
@-FAUXV
Infinite auxiliary verb.
sáhte (V)
Eat mii sáhte vuolgit. - 'We cannot leave.'
@-FMAINV
Infinite main verb.
geargan (V)
Ja Biret-Elle lea easka skuvllas geargan. - 'And Biret-Elle has just finished school.'
@-FOBJ>
Object of infinite verb outside the verbal.
váldovuoittuid (N)
Valáštallanhálla lei njealjehas dievva olbmuiguin geat vurde váldovuoittuid fasket. - 'The gymn was to a quarter full of people that wait to grab the main prizes.'
@-FSUBJ>
Subject of infinite verb outside the verbal.
mu (Pron)
Diet dáhpáhuvai mu dieđikeahttá. - 'It happened without me knowing about it.'
@ADVL> <hab>
Habitive to the left of the finite verb.
Máhtes (N)
Máhtes lea beana. - 'Máhtte has a dog.'
@<ADVL <hab>
Habitive to the right of the finite verb.
dus (Pron)
Leago dus ruhta? - 'Do you have money?'
@HNOUN
Stray noun in sentence fragments.
boddu (N)
Vuosttaš boddu. - 'First lesson.'
@INTERJ
Interjection.
maid (Interj)
Maid, iigo leat boahtán? - 'What, hasn't he/she come?'
@>N
Prenominal modifier to the left
geavatlaš (A)
Ráđđehussii lea geavatlaš politihkka deaŧalaš. - 'For the government, practical politics is important.'
oahppo-
Oahppo- ja dutkanministtar dat lea ráhkadan dieđáhusa alit sámi oahpu ja dutkama birra. - 'The secretary for education and research has given a notice about Saami higher education and research.'
rektor (N)
Rektor Tove Bull álgaga mielde... - 'According to principal Tove Bull ...'
Tove (N Prop)
Rektor Tove Bull álgaga mielde... - 'According to principal Tove Bull ...'
@N<
Modifier of the noun to the left.
33 (Num)
Mun lean ilus go beasan ovdanbuktit St.dieđ. nr. 33. - 'I am happy that I get the opportunity to present the parliament notice number 33.' (In this case 33 modifies St.dieđ..)
vihtta (Num)
Mun boađán diibmu vihtta. - 'I will come at five o'clock.'
@>Num
Attributes of numeral to the right.
nr (N)
Mun lean ilus go beasan ovdanbuktit St.dieđ. nr. 33. - 'I am happy that I get the opportunity to present the parliament notice number 33.'
@Num<
Attributes of numeral to the left.
jagi (N)
Son lea guoktelogi jagi boaris. - 'She/he is twenty years old.'
@<OBJ
Direct object to the right of the finite verb.
áiggi (N)
Dat gáibida ollu áiggi. - 'That demands a lot of time.'
@OBJ>
Direct object to the left of the finite verb.
maid (Pron)
Filbma lea oassi prošeavttas maid Sámi instituhtta lea ruthadan. - 'The film is a part of the project that the Saami institute has financed.'
@OPRED>
Object predicative to the left of the finite verb.
luoikkasin (N)
Gaup dojii stivrrana hárjehallamiin, muhto oaččui luoikkasin eará stivrrana. - 'Gaup broke the handlebars during the practises, but got to borrow another steering.'
@<OPRED
Object predicative to the right of the finite verb.
buriid (A)
Gáhkkuid son ráhkada hui buriid. - 'Cakes, she/he makes really good ones.'
sámegielhállin (N)
Dagat iežat sámegielhállin. - 'You make yourself a Saami speaker.'
@>P
Complement of postposition to the left of it.
oahpu (N), dutkama (N)
Oahppo- ja dutkanministtar dat lea ráhkadan dieđáhusa alit sámi oahpu ja dutkama birra. - 'The secretary for education and research has given a notice about Saami higher education and research.'
@P<
Complement of preposition to the right of it.
oasálaččaid (N)
Finnmárkkus ii goassige leat leamaš ságastallan gaskal muhtun muddui seammadássásaš oasálaččaid. - 'There has never been a discussion in Finnmark between somehow equal parts.'
@PCLE
Particle.
amma (Pcle)
Amma mii eat leat máksán? - 'We haven't paid, have we?'
@<PPRED
a predicative with a predicative as its head
reaŋgan (N)
Máhtes lea Jovnna reaŋgan. - 'Máhtte has Jovnna as a searvant.'
@>Pron
Modifier of a pronoun to the left of it.
buot (Pron)
Mun, Johanas, lean dat guhte lean gullan ja oaidnán buot dán. - 'I, Johanas, am the one who has heard and seen all of it.'
@Pron<
Modifier of pronoun to the right of it.
ipmašiid (N)
Maid ipmašiid doppe dagat? - 'What the heck are you doing there?'
golmmas (N)
Mii golmmas oktan du vieljain finaimet Niillas-čeazi geahčen. - 'We three together with your brother visited uncle Niillas.'
@SPRED
Subject predicative in elliptical sentences.
nommh (N)
Die maa onterligksh nommh, ih goh tuhtjh, men die ligan onterligksh nierretjh aaj.
(sma)
@<SPRED
Subject predicative to the right of the finite verb.
galbmasat (A)
Mus leat gieđat nu galbmasat. - 'My hands are so cold.'
@SPRED>
Subject predicative to the left of the finite verb.
bargu (N)
Sin bargun lei váldit fáŋgan Gonagasa. - 'Their job was to capture the King.'
@SUBJ
Elliptical subject.
ålma (N)
Dennie synnagovgesne jis akte ålma maam doenh-aajmoe doerelamme.
@SUBJ>
Subject to the left of the finite verb.
son (Pron)
Son lea mu oabbá. - 'She is my sister.'
@<SUBJ
Subject to the right of the finite verb.
ollusat (Pron)
...ja dan vejolašvuođa orro gal ollusat geavahan. - '...and this opportunity, many seem to make use of.'
@<SUBJ <ext>
Subject to the right of the finite verb, in a habitive or extencial construction.
beana (N)
Mus lea beana. - 'I have a dog.'
luopmánat (N)
Jeakkis leat luopmánat. - 'There are cloudberries in the swamp.'
@VOC
Vocative.
hearrá
Hearrá, du ráhkis ustit lea buohcci. - 'Lord, your beloved friend is ill.'
@X
A dummy tag assigned when no tag assignment rule has hit. This tag is useful for finding the flaws in the tag mapping section.