UIT The arctic university of Norway > Giellatekno



  1. Directory structure (TBS)
  2. Name lexicon (TBMS)
  3. Numerals (TMS)
  4. Three-part compounds. (TMS(T))
  5. Project planning + Árran (TS)

Directory structure (TBS)

Tuesday afternoon

Conversion from original to internal format. Manually add meta-info on writer, mainlang, etc. into the xsl file. Manually (temporarily) edit the int file, adding language info in multilingual docs. Do a xmldiff on this, add the result to the xsl file.

Problem with xmldiff: The document structure of the int file could change, thus rendering the generated references in the xmldiff part of the xsl file invalid. Typically xmldiffs contain XPath expressions such as:


If a new version of antiword or our DocBook2GT generates a different structure, the p [n] type references will identify the wrong node, or nothing at all.

Solution to this problem: Version control of the intermediate xml file. You have two reasons for this: 1) manual addition of language information, 2) new generations of the internal xml file. After this is done, apply the xsl file and generate the final document.

We then started to look for free software to do automatic language recognition, and found some alternatives. We picked (TextCat|), a perl-based tool licensed under a GPL license. It is now installed in gt/scripts/, and rudimentary user doc can be found in our intranet.

What is left to do now, is to integrate language recognition with the corpus processing, adding language information automatically to at least the document (if not existing and correct), but preferably to all elements containing text, and the language of the text is different from the main language of the doc.

Name lexicon (TBMS)

Semantic classification

The name lexicon meeting turned into a very productive meeting, ending in a new classification for names, as well as a draft XML document. The new classification is:

  • mal
  • fem
  • sur
  • org
  • plc
  • obj

Each name can have more than one of these classes.

XML format

We made an xml fragment illustrating the suggested document format. The fragment is found at:


and contains the following:

<?xml version='1.1'  encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE propndict PUBLIC "-//DIVVUN//DTD Proper Noun Dictionary V1.0//EN"
    <entry id="Guovdageaidnu">
          plc sur 
        <form lg="sme">
        <form lg="smj">
        <form lg="sma">
        <form lg="fin">
        <form lg="eng nno nob swe"/>
    <entry id="India">
          fem plc
        <form lg="sme">
        <form lg="smj">
        <form lg="sma">
        <form lg="fin">
        <form lg="fin">
        <form lg="eng nno nob swe"/>


The entries above are not necessarily correct, their purpose is to illustrate how to handle some different cases.

The following should be noted regarding the above XML document, and it's interpretation:

  • the id attribute contains the name itself in the language of the entity named if known, otherwise the most common form (to reduce space)
  • the <sem> element contains one or more of the classification strings listed above
  • the <form> element contains language-specific information about a name:
    • <lm> - lemma, only needed if different from the id of the entry
    • <stem> - gives the stem if different from <lm>
    • <cont> - the continuation lexicon. The string here is concatenated with the strings given in <sem> (one at a time) separated by a hyphen, forming the set of possible continuation lexicons. If no <cont> is given, the name is not included in the compiled lexicon for that language.
    • <sem> - contains override semantic classification - see the India example above, Finnish entries, for a use case
    • if the same information is shared among several languages, the @lg can (or preferably should) contain multiple entries separated by a space
    • the <form> element can be empty if all information can be deduced from the @id of the entry (such as when there's no known continuation class, and the form is the same as in the @id)

The languages we considered were:

  • sme
  • smj sma fin swe nob nno eng

Others might and could easily be added later.

The next steps

The next steps to be taken are:

  1. classify each name according to the most obvious semantic class - but only one
  2. write a DTD or schema (preferably, to enforce limitations on the content of <sem>)
  3. write scripts to transform the above format to LEXC format, correction strings for spellers, etc.
  4. evaluate the best editing tools for this document (considering that 50 000 names in up to 10 languages must be handled properly); we might need to consider splitting up the file in smaller fragments
  5. consider synchronisation issues in case the same material is also stored and updated at risten.no
  6. convert existing names to this format
  7. test the conversion
  8. add additional semantic classes, where such are needed
  9. add new names and language forms

Numerals (TMS)

Not covered.

Three-part compounds. (TMS(Tomi))

Not covered.

Thursday - Project planning + Árran (TS)

We discussed project plans and planning a lot, as well as the possible tools to use. We tried or looked at a few, and settled on Merlin. It has nice OS X integration, but also its drawbacks, the main being that it really is a single-user application. This makes it hard to share and access project files and info among several users, which limits the usefulness of the application quite a lot. Nevertheless, the pros outweight the cons, at least compared to the alternatives.

There's an online Handbook for Merlin, as well as a pdf version.

Real project plans are (finally!) forthcoming:-)

We did not discuss Árran.

Last modified: $Date: 2016-07-13 16:19:24 +0200 (ons, 13 jul 2016) $, by $Author: boerre $